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Human-AI Collaboration in Decision-Making: Beyond Learning to Defer

Leitão, D. ; Saleiro, P. ; Figueiredo, M. A. T. ; Bizarro, P.

Human-AI Collaboration in Decision-Making: Beyond Learning to Defer, Proc ICML Workshop on Human Machine Collaboration and Teaming, Baltimore, United States, Vol. , pp. - , July, 2022.

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Abstract
Human-AI collaboration (HAIC) in decisionmaking aims to create synergistic teaming between human decision-makers and AI systems. Learning to defer (L2D) has been presented as a promising framework to determine who among humans and AI should take which decisions in order to optimize the performance and fairness of the combined system. Nevertheless, L2D entails several often unfeasible requirements, such as the availability of predictions from humans for every instance or ground-truth labels independent from said decision-makers. Furthermore, neither L2D nor alternative approaches tackle fundamental issues of deploying HAIC in real-world settings, such as capacity management or dealing with dynamic environments. In this paper, we aim to identify and review these and other limitations, pointing to where opportunities for future research in HAIC may lie.