Vanishing k-space fidelity and phase diagram’s bulk-edge-bulk correspondence
Annals of Physics Vol. 401, Nº -, pp. 40 - 59, December, 2018.
ISSN (print): 0003-4916
ISSN (online): 1096-035X
Journal Impact Factor: 3,065 (in 2013)
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/j.aop.2018.11.021
The fidelity between two infinitesimally close states or the fidelity susceptibility of a system are known to detect quantum phase transitions. Here we show that the $k$-space fidelity between two states far from each other and taken deep inside (bulk) of two phases, generically vanishes at the k-points where there are gapless points in the energy spectrum that give origin to the lines (edges) separating the phases in the phase diagram. We consider a general case of two-band models and present a sufficient condition for the existence of gapless points, given there are pairs of parameter points for which the fidelity between the corresponding states is zero. By presenting an explicit counter-example, we show that the sufficient condition is not necessary. Further, we show that, unless the set of parameter points is suitably constrained, the existence of gapless points generically implies accompanied pairs of parameter points with vanishing fidelity. Also, we show the connection between the vanishing fidelity and gapless points on a number of concrete examples (topological triplet superconductor, topological insulator, $1d$ Kitaev model of spinless fermions, BCS superconductor, Ising model in a transverse field, graphene and Haldane Chern insulator), as well as for the more general case of Dirac-like Hamiltonians. We also briefly discuss the relation between the vanishing fidelity and gapless points at finite temperatures.