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A Reference Model for Internet of Things Middleware

Cruz, M. ; Rodrigues, J. R. ; Al-Muhtadi, J. M. ; Korotaev, V. ; Albuquerque, V.

IEEE Internet of Things Journal Vol. 5, Nº 2, pp. 871 - 883, April, 2018.

ISSN (print): 2327-4662
ISSN (online):

Journal Impact Factor: 7,596 (in 2016)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/JIOT.2018.2796561

Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) is a term used to describe an environment where billions of objects, constrained in terms of resources (“things”), are connected to the Internet, and interacting autonomously. With so many objects connected in IoT solutions, the environment in which they are placed becomes smarter. A software, called middleware, plays a key role since it is responsible for most of the intelligence in IoT, integrating data from devices, allowing them to communicate, and make decisions based on collected data. Then, considering requirements of IoT platforms, a reference architecture model for IoT middleware is analyzed, detailing the best operation approaches of each proposed module, as well as proposes basic security features for this type of software. This paper elaborates on a systematic review of the related literature, exploring the differences between the current Internet and IoT-based systems, presenting a deep discussion of the challenges and future perspectives on IoT middleware. Finally, it highlights the difficulties for achieving and enforcing a universal standard. Thus, it is concluded that middleware plays a crucial role in IoT solutions and the proposed architectural approach can be used as a reference model for IoT middleware.