IoToF: A Long-Reach Fully Passive Low-Rate Upstream PHY for IoT over Fiber
; Leitão, C. Leitão
; Marques, C.
Domingues, M. F.
; Ribeiro, T.
; Pontes, M. J.
; Frizera-Neto, A. Frizera-Neto
; R. N. Ribeiro, M. R. N. Ribeiro
Electronics (Switzerland) Vol. 8, Nº 359, pp. 1 - 14, March, 2019.
ISSN (print): 2079-9292
Journal Impact Factor: 2,110 (in )
Digital Object Identifier: 10.3390/electronics8030359
Internet of things (IoT) devices heavily rely on wireless connectivity. There are intrinsic over looked limitations such as reach,availability,security and safety vulnerabilities closely associated with wireless solutions. Wired connectivity is the alternative to tackle those issues, and optical ﬁbers directly connecting IoT devices could provide them unique features such as huge bandwidth, long reach, signal integrity and high security grade for the transmitted information. Nevertheless, it can be prohibitive for IoT devices which are power hungry and have costly electrical-to-optical conversions. In this paper, ﬁrst, a niche is identiﬁed for IoT over ﬁber (IoToF) based on fully passive optical solutions for long reach upstream of low data rate optical connectivity over dark ﬁbers. Then, we proposed, implemented and characterized a prototype physical connectivity (PHY) based on ﬁber Bragg grating (FBG) low-cost acousto-optic modulation at IoT devices and respective optical edge-ﬁltering as wavelength discriminator at the receiver. Finally, we performed an experimental demonstration of upstream data communication based on simple M-ary frequency-shift keying(FSK), with baud rate of 300 bps transmitted over 30 km range. In terms of data rate and reach for niche applications, IoToF can outperform traditional wireless technologies, such as Sigfox or LoRa. IoToF will enable monitoring urban areas with scarce and polluted spectrum, industrial areas requiring intrinsic safety, and upstreaming data from IoT devices in remote locations with unfavorable wireless propagation but with dark ﬁbers available.