Communication technologies for Smart Water Grid applications: Overview, opportunities, and research directions
; Fourati, M.
; Chaari, L.
Computer Networks Vol. 190, Nº 0, pp. 107940 - 107940, May, 2021.
ISSN (print): 1389-1286
Journal Impact Factor: 1,304 (in 2008)
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/j.comnet.2021.107940
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Due to the aging of current water infrastructure and the increased demand for water resources, water distribu-tion systems encounter several problems such as pipes leaks and bursts, water contamination or pollution,and water optimization issues. To cope with these issues, access to water-related data and informationrelated to the water grid is fundamental in order to build sophisticated strategies for water management.Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into the current water infrastructure is oneviable solution to access to water-related data. This new infrastructure that integrates ICT into the waterdistribution system is called Smart Water Grid (SWG). The information layer of the SWG requires well-suitedcommunication networks. This paper reviews wireless communication technologies that can be exploited forthe implementation of SWG applications. The paper mainly focuses on the exploration of Low Power WideArea Networks (LPWANs) that promise to overcome problems confronted by communication technologiesused currently in SWG applications. Some of the wireless technologies used in SWG applications suffer fromhigh power consumption issues while others are limited in terms of communication range. For future SWGapplications, in this work we recommend LPWAN technologies due to their low power consumption, longcommunication range and excellent radio penetration. A range of challenges and research directions regardingthe recommended LPWANs is also discussed