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Engineering Transistorlike Optical Gain in Two-Dimensional Materials with Berry Curvature Dipoles

Rappoport, G. ; Morgado, T. A. ; Lannebère, S. ; Silveirinha, M. G.

Physical Review Letters Vol. 130, Nº 7, pp. 076901 - 076901, February, 2023.

ISSN (print): 1079-7114
ISSN (online): 0031-9007

Scimago Journal Ranking: 3,12 (in 2022)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.076901

Transistors are key elements of electronic circuits as they enable, for example, the isolation or amplification of voltage signals. While conventional transistors are point-type (lumped-element) devices, it may be interesting to realize a distributed transistor-type optical response in a bulk material. Here, we show that low-symmetry two-dimensional metallic systems may be the ideal solution to implement such a distributed-transistor response. To this end, we use the semiclassical Boltzmann equation approach to characterize the optical conductivity of a two-dimensional material under a static electric bias. Similar to the nonlinear Hall effect, the linear electro-optic (EO) response depends on the Berry curvature dipole and can lead to nonreciprocal optical interactions. Most interestingly, our analysis uncovers a novel non-Hermitian linear EO effect that can lead to optical gain and to a distributed transistor response. We study a possible realization based on strained bilayer graphene. Our analysis reveals that the optical gain for incident light transmitted through the biased system depends on the light polarization, and can be quite large, especially for multilayer configurations.