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Microwave Propagation Modeling and Measurement of Scattering and Absorption Inside a Canopy Using the FDTD Technique

Caldeirinha, Rafael ; AL-Nuaimi, M.

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation Vol. 63, Nº 1, pp. 1 - 14, January, 2015.

ISSN (print): 0018-926X
ISSN (online): 0018-926X

Journal Impact Factor: 2,181 (in 2014)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2365571

Abstract
This paper proposes a novel method aimed at modeling microwave scattering and absorption inside a canopy, arising from the interaction with the individual components of the vegetation specimen, starting from primary models for leaves, trunk and branches. The method is based on the Finite-Difference Time-Domain ( extit{FDTD}) technique to predict the mbox{3-dimensional} mbox{re-radiation} fields of the entire tree, by combining the effects of the single elements forming the tree. Appropriate measurements performed in an anechoic chamber environment at microwave frequencies, extit{i.e.} 20 GHz, and in the forward scattering region, provided both model validation and a deeper insight into the problem. The model is shown to be capable of predicting the near-field radiated signal and the radar cross section (RCS). The predictions yielded good agreement with measurements and provides a good basis for a planning model capable of accounting for single trees in the radio path.